Plotting Technique in a Dynamic World – MIT Sloan

8September 2020

1. For example, see G. Albort-Morant, A.L. Leal-Rodríguez, V. Fernández-Rodríguez, et al., “Evaluating the Origins, Advancement, and Prospects of the Literature on Dynamic Capabilities: A Bibliometric Analysis,” European Research on Management and Organization Economics 24, no. 1 (January-April 2018): 42-52.

2. M. Reeves, K. Whitaker, and T. Deegan, “Combating the Gravity of Typical Efficiency,” MIT Sloan Management Review, Jan. 9, 2020,

3. F. Becker, “Organizational Ecology and Knowledge Networks,” California Management Review 49, no. 2 (winter season 2007): 42-61.

4. R. Ramírez, R. Österman, and D. Grönquist, “Scenarios and Early Warnings as Dynamic Capabilities to Frame Supervisory Attention,” Technological Forecasting and Social Modification 80, no. 4 (May 2013): 825-838; and A. Dong, M. Garbuio, and D. Lovallo, “Generative Sensing: A Style Viewpoint on the Microfoundations of Picking Up Capabilities,” California Management Evaluation 58, no. 4 (summer season 2016): 97-117.

5. T. Griffith, “Reimagining Movement: A CEO’s Guide,” McKinsey Quarterly, Feb. 25, 2019,; see also “Progressive Insurance: Quick Experimentation and Low Risk With Hadoop,” Tableau, accessed Might 28, 2020,

6. The Samsung case is compiled from numerous news short articles and other sources. Considerable sources include D. Rocks and M. Ihlwan, “Samsung Design,” BusinessWeek, Dec. 6, 2004, 88-96; Y. Yoo and K. Kim, “How Samsung Ended Up Being a Design Powerhouse,” Harvard Business Review 93, no. 9 (September 2015): 73-78; and J. Tune, K. Lee, and T. Khanna, “Dynamic Capabilities at Samsung: Optimizing Internal Co-opetition,” California Management Review 58, no. 4 (summer season 2016): 118-140.

7. M.Y. Lee and A.C. Edmondson, “Self-Managing Organizations: Exploring the Limitations of Less-Hierarchical Organizing,” Research in Organizational Behavior 37 (January 2017): 35-58.

8. E. Danneels and A. Vestal, “Normalizing vs. Evaluating: Drawing the Lessons From Failure to Boost Company Innovativeness,” Journal of Organization Venturing 35, no. 1 (January 2020): 1-18.

9. C.J. Nemeth, “Handling Development: When Less Is More,” California Management Evaluation 40, no. 1 (fall 1997): 59-74.

10. The essential concept is the bottleneck possession– any input that is limited and costly (or difficult) to duplicate. See, for example, D.J. Teece, “Making Money From Innovation in the Digital Economy: Enabling Technologies, Standards, and Licensing Models in the Wireless World,” Research Policy 47, no. 8 (October 2018): 1367-1387. A competitively provided input may nonetheless deserve producing internal if its evolution needs to be carefully collaborated with that of other inputs. See J.M. de Figueiredo and D.J. Teece, “Mitigating Procurement Hazards in the Context of Innovation,” Industrial and Corporate Change 5, no. 2 (June 1996): 537-559.

11. For an analysis of the dimensions of business identity, and the stress that can arise between them, see J.M.T. Balmer and S.A. Greyser, “Managing the Numerous Identities of the Corporation,” California Management Review 44, no. 3 (spring 2002): 72-86. For a literature evaluation of the triggers of identity modification, see R. Abratt and M. Mingione, “Business Identity, Strategy, and Change,” Journal of Brand Name Management 24, no. 2 (January 2017): 129-139.

12. W.C. Taylor, “The Leader of the Future,” Fast Company, June 1999, 130-138.

13. This involves the timeless exercise of “double-loop knowing that faces the standard assumptions behind concepts or present views which openly evaluates hypotheses,” as described on p. 34 in C. Argyris, “Management, Knowing, and Changing the Status Quo,” Organizational Characteristics 4, no. 3 (winter season 1976): 29-43.


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